sexta-feira, 1 de abril de 2011

How to use gerunds

Hi, everybody!
Em inglês, a forma ing, por exemplo swimming ou smoking, pode ser tanto um substantivo ou um verbo. Você pode usá-lo precedido por um objeto (smoking cigarette), por um verbo (swimming is good) ou você pode torná-lo o objeto de uma frase (I like swimming). 

After verbs (depois de verbos)

Usa-se a forma ing após alguns verbos tais como enjoy, admit, appreciate, can't stand / help / bear, deny, avoid, mind, understand.
Por exemplo: "I can't stand doing nothing" ou "She denied breaking the copier".

With 'from' and 'to' with some verbs ("from" e "to" com alguns verbos)

Prevent / stop someone from doing: "He prevented her from leaving."
Look forward to doing: "We look forward to hearing from you soon."
Object to doing: "Does anyone object to me smoking?"
Get used to doing: "It took him a long time to get used to living in a city."
Prefer something to doing something else: "I prefer cooking to doing the dishes."

After prepositions (Depois de preposições)

"Before going out he turned off the heating."
"I'm tired of arguing."
"These are used for cracking walnuts."
"I passed the exam by remembering the equations."

In some fixed expressions (Em algumas expressões fixas)

"As well as doing…"
"It's no good doing…"
"It's no use doing…"

Some verbs can use either the 'to do' or the 'ing' form (Alguns verbos podem usar tanto a forma "to do" ou a forma "ing")

/ hear / watch someone (alguém) do / doing

Com a forma verbal do, você vê ou ouve a ação completa.. Por exemplo: "I heard him tell you about the letter."

Com a forma verbal ing você apenas vê ou ouve parte da ação. Por exemplo: "I saw her drinking a coffee in the bar."

Remember / regret 

Se você usa ing depois destes verbos, você está falando sobre algo que aconteceu antes:
"I remember coming here as a child" – I'm not a child any more, but I remember the times when I came here before.
"I regret not studying." (I didn't study in the past and I regret it now.)

 Se você usa a forma to do depois destes verbos, então você está se referindo a algo no futuro.

"Please remember to turn off the lights." (Please don't forget to do it later.)
"I regret to inform you that…" (I'm just about to tell you some bad news.)

"I want to stop smoking." (I want to break my habit.)
"She stopped to sit down." (She stopped walking so that she could sit down.)

Try + ing = try out this experiment.
Try reading something in English every day." (You may be surprised at the results!)
Try to do = try hard to do something.
"Please try to be quiet when you come in." (Please make an effort.)

See you,
Teacher Josete

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