domingo, 31 de julho de 2011

What do know about New York!

Well, It's "The Big Apple", the city I want to visit someday!
Come on, come true, New York!!
Look and Listen! Good journey!
It's up to you!
Leave a comment telling us what you know about NY.
Are you from there?
Have you ever been to New York City?
Where would like do go in New York?
Who would you like to be with?

sábado, 30 de julho de 2011

An advice from Shakespeare's "Hamlet"

Neither a borrower nor a lender be,
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.

William Shakespeare (Hamlet Act 1, scene 3, 75-77)

This is the advice that Polonius offers his son Laertes, who is about to embark for Paris for his gentleman's education. While he still has the chance, Polonius wholesales a stockroom of aphorisms, the most famous of which is "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."
Polonius like any dear father who wants to protect his son from the dangers of lending and borrowing, amongst other things, asks him to be wary of borrowing or lending money to a friend (entire text at the end of this piece).
On Polonius's terms, there is little to argue with in his perhaps ungenerous advice. His logic is thus: lending money to friends is risky, because hitching debt onto personal relationships can cause resentment and, in the case of default, loses the lender both his money and his friend. Borrowing invites more private dangers: it supplants domestic thrift ("husbandry")—in Polonius's eyes, an important gentlemanly value.
Incidentally, in the days when Hamlet was first staged, borrowing was epidemic among the gentry, who sometimes neglected husbandry to the point where they were selling off their estates piece by piece to maintain an ostentatious lifestyle in London.
For one, once you borrow money from a friend you feel obliged, under pressure to agree with whatever your friend says or does.
At times, you may oppose her/ his act, but in muffled tones. The sharpness of truth gets blunted under the pressure of debt.
I am not suggesting that your friend would expect obligation and obedience from you because of the money he/she lent to you but you would always feel indebted.
Every time you go out with your friend in a group you would feel you were being run down by your friend from whom you borrowed money. For instance, during a conversation if you say something and your friend begs to differ with you, you'd feel that your friend is trying to impose his ideas on you.
At times, you may be right, but more often than not, the thought that you borrowed money from her/him lingers on.
Gradually, it makes you feel miserable, inferior when you socialise with her/him in a group. You feel like making your point but stay silent, thinking your friend might feel offended. As time passes by you may not feel like going out with this friend, avoid meeting her/him, don't answer her/his phone calls.
This could continue till the time you repay what you had borrowed and get your voice and conscience back.
But, by then, your friend would have been stopped being your friend. When money comes in, friendship goes out.
The same scenario occurs when you lend money to your friend. But, as a lender, the shoe is in the other foot, and you feel wronged all the time by your friend.
For instance, when your friend, who has borrowed money from you, spends some amount on himself, the lender in you feels that your friend is being irresponsible.
"How can s/he spend money when the first thing s/he should have done is repay my money," the lender in you screams.
Everything else overrides this concern of a lender. Even your friendship that has been so dear to you for all the years you have been together before you lent money to your friend.
Though I have not lost the friend from whom I had borrowed money. I lost one to whom I lent. Earlier, we would laugh our hearts out over frivolous stuff even; today we avoid looking into each other's eyes.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be; for loan oft loses both itself and friend… how true!

To Thine Own Self Be True
Yet here, Laertes! Aboard, aboard for shame!
The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail,
And you are stay'd for.
There ... my blessing with thee!
And these few precepts in thy memory
Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportion'd thought his act.
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.
Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade.  Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel but, being in,
Bear't that th' opposed may beware of thee.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgement.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
For the apparel oft proclaims the man;
And they in France of the best rank and station
Are of a most select and generous chief in that.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be;
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all: to thine own self be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.
Farewell; my blessing season this in thee!
-- William Shakespeare

Have you lost a good friend because of your mistake and want to break the ice?
Tell us your story! 
See you!
Teacher Jô


sexta-feira, 29 de julho de 2011

Borrow, Lend, Loan

Hi, students!
What's the difference between borrow, lend, and loan? Two of them are synonyms and the third is the opposite - lend me your eyes and I'll tell you about them.
Borrow means to take something from someone, with permission and with the intention of giving it back. The past participle is borrowed.
Can I borrow the car?
You can borrow a pen from him.
I need to borrow some money.
What happened to the books I borrowed from the library?
Lend is just the opposite - it means to give something to something, with the expectation that s/he will return it. The past participle is lent.
Yes, I'll lend you the car.
He'll be happy to lend you a pen.
I can't afford to lend you any money.
The library lent me those books three weeks ago.
Lend can also be used figuratively, to mean to contribute, impart, or offer:
The yellow wall will lend a feeling of warmth.
Your story lends itself to numerous interpretations.
Loan is a synonym for lend, used by Americans, but only for the concrete meaning (the opposite of borrow), not the figurative one. The past participle is loaned.
Yes, I'll loan you the car.
He'll be happy to loan you a pen.
I can't afford to loan you any money.
The library loaned me those books three weeks ago.
Loan is also a noun, which indicates whatever object was loaned.
I'll have to get a loan to buy this house.
The loan of my car was on condition that you fill it with gas.
  The Bottom Line
Borrow means "to take," while lend and loan mean "to give." If you continue to have trouble with this, try substituting "take" for borrow and "give" for lend or loan - the correct word will immediately be clear.
You can only borrow something from someone: "Loan (or lend) me a pen" is correct, "Borrow me a pen" is not. (Just as "give me a pen" is right, but "take me a pen" isn't.)

See you!
Teacher Jô

quinta-feira, 28 de julho de 2011

Writing Tips: 8 Commonly Misused Words you Should Really Learn

Hello, everyone! recently posted this list of commonly misused words, to help you begin writing the right way! Familiarize yourself with this list so you can write securely, knowing that you're not making any of these common mistakes!

1) It's vs. Its

It's VS. Its

 2) Accept vs. Except

Accept VS Except

3) Compliment vs. Complement

 Compliment vs Complement

4) Fewer vs. Less

fewer vs less

5) Flair vs. Flare

Flair VS Flare

6) Lie vs. Lay

 lie vs lay

7) Emigrate vs. Immigrate

Emigrate VS Immigrate

8) Flammable vs. Inflammable

Flammable vs inflammable
I hope this illustrated list saves your English papers from future grammar mistakes!
Comments? Leave your feedback below! 
See you!
Teacher Jô

quarta-feira, 27 de julho de 2011

Accept vs Except

EnglishHello, people!

Accept vs Except
These two English words are sometimes confused by native speakers. Please accept my invitation to learn the difference with this lesson.
Accept is a verb that means "to receive, admit, regard as true, say yes."
I can't accept this gift.
He was accepted to Harvard.
Do you accept this theory?
My offer was immediately accepted.
He asked me to marry him, and I accepted.
The noun acceptance refers to the "act or process of accepting, approval, or agreement."

Except is a preposition that means "excluding."
He bought a gift for everyone except me.
I know everyone here except the children.
Except is also a conjunction that means "if not for the fact that" or "other than."
I would help you, except I'm too busy.
He never calls me except to borrow money.
Except is a fairly uncommon verb that means "to leave out, exclude."
I hate lawyers, present company excepted.
Children are excepted from these rules.
The noun exception means "exclusion" or "one that is excepted."
The Bottom Line
The confusion between accept and except is due to their somewhat similar spelling and pronunciation. In fact, it's rather strange that they do get confused, because the meaning of accept and the meaning of except when used as a verb are more or less opposites.
In the majority of situations, when you want to use a verb, that verb is accept. Except is rarely used as a verb, but when it is, it means "to leave out" not "to receive or agree to."

Take care!
Teacher Jô

terça-feira, 26 de julho de 2011

Have and Have Got for Beginners

Hi, students! 
The differences between 'have' and 'have got' can be confusing for beginners. Here is a guide the two forms.

Remember these important points:

  • 'Have' and 'Have got' are used for possession. Example: Jack has got a beautiful house. OR Jack has a beautiful house.
  • Only 'have' is used when talking about actions. Example: I usually have breakfast at 8 o'clock. NOT I usually have got breakfast at 8 o'clock.
  • The question form for 'have' follows regular present simple: Example: Do you have a fast car? NOT Have you a fast car?
  • 'Have' and 'Have got' are only used in the present simple. Use 'have' for the past simple or future forms. Example: She had a copy of that book.
  • There is no contracted form for 'Have' in the positive form. The contracted form is used for 'have got' Example: I have a red bicycle. OR I've got a red bicycle. NOT I've a red bicycle.
Here is a grammar chart showing the construction of the two forms:

Positive I, You, We, They HAVE GOT

Subject + have + got + objects
They have got a new car.  ContractedThey've got a new car.

Positive He, She, It HAVE GOT

Subject + has + got + objects
He has got a new car.  Contracted:  He's got a new car.

Positive I, You, We, They HAVE 

Subject + have + objects
They have a new car.  (There is no contracted form)

Positive He, She, It HAVE 

Subject + have + objects
She has a new car.  (There is no contracted form)

Question I, You, We, They HAVE GOT

(?) + have + subject + got?
How many children have you got?  (There is no contracted form)

Question He, She, It HAVE GOT

(?) + has + subject + got?
How many children has he got?  (There is no contracted form)

Question I, You, We, They HAVE 

(?) + do + subject + have?
How many children do you have?  (There is no contracted form)

Question He, She, It HAVE 

(?) + does + subject + have?
How many children does he have?  (There is no contracted form)

Negative I, You, We, They HAVE GOT

Subject + have + not + got + objects
We have not got a dog.  Contraction:  We haven't got a dog.

Negative He, She, It HAVE GOT

Subject + has + not + got + objects
She has not got a dog.  Contraction:  She hasn't got a dog.

Negative I, You, We, They HAVE 

Subject + do + not + have + objects
They do not have a dog. Contraction: They don't have a dog.

Negative He, She, It HAVE GOT

Subject + does + not + have + objects
She does not have a dog.  Contraction:  She doesn't have a dog.
Check your understanding with this Have / Have Got Quiz 

Hope you liked it!
See you,
Teacher Jô

segunda-feira, 25 de julho de 2011

Lay or Lie

Hello, everyone!
Some of us still take pride in using correct grammar when possible. For those of you who do, one of the most common misuses of words occurs with the verbs lay and lie.
The English verbs lay and lie are commonly confused by even native English speakers. I'm not lying when I say that you can now lay your fears of not knowing the difference to rest.
This one can just be confusing, so here are some simple tricks to remember which is which.
To lie or not to lie? That is the question.

First of all, let's start with the present tense and get a clear understanding as when to use each word.
According to

  • to put or place in a horizontal position or position of rest; set down: to lay a book on a desk. 
  • to be in a horizontal, recumbent, or prostrate position, as on a bed or the ground; recline.
  • (of objects) to rest in a horizontal or flat position.
Keep in mind, then, that if you or something is resting in a position, you would use "lie" or a tense of it. Examples are: I lie on the bed when exhausted. He lies down when sick. The book lies sideways on the book case.
If you are placing something somewhere, then use the word "lay" or a tense of it. Examples are: Lay that book down on the book case. Lay your head on the pillow and rest.

It's easy enough to get these confused when in the present tense, but then we add other tenses into the mix.

For lie, it's lay, lain and lying. 

So here we go!


Today, I lie on the couch.

Yesterday, I lay on the couch.

Many times, I have lain on the couch.

I was lying on the couch yesterday.

For lay, it's laid, laid, laying.

Today, you lay pen on the table.

Yesterday, you laid the pen on the table.

Many times, you have laid the pen on the table.

You were laying the pen on the table when I saw you. 


As I said earlier, it's tricky, and that's why so many mistakes are made. The best advice I can give you is to spend some time memorizing the various tenses of each verb and then try to practice them daily. You could say these sentences in the shower, for example.
Once you get it firmly placed in your mind, you will impress those who are in the know with your correct usage of these words. Grammar still matters to some of us, and it's fun to speak properly.
Adapted from:

See you!
Teacher Jô

sábado, 23 de julho de 2011

G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra (Official Movie Trailer)

Hello, guys and gals!
Depois de tanto falar sobre G.I. Joe, deu uma vontade de rever o filme... E foi o que fiz!
Deixo o trailer para vocês curtirem um pouco também! Quem sabe você não corre para
a locadora e não garante um bom filme para o fim de semana?! Fica a dica!
See you soon!
Teacher Jô

sexta-feira, 22 de julho de 2011

G.I. Joe Team

Hi, everyone!
No post de ontem, falei sobre o que significa ser um "Private" e um "G.I.". Hoje, como prometi, vou falar sobre G.I. Joe. Mas, o que mais falta a ser dito sobre G.I. Joe?
Bem, G.I. Joe, além de tudo o que já dissemos anteriormente, é também uma linha de figuras de ação (action figures) produzida pela compania de brinquedos Hasbro a partir de 1964. A produção inicial oferecida trazia bonecos que representavam as quatro vertentes das Forças Armadas Americanas com o Action Soldier (U.S. Army), Action Sailor (U.S. Navy), Action Pilot (USAF), Action Marine (USMC) e mais tarde surgiu a Action Nurse. O interessante é que o sucesso da linha de brinquedo G.I. Joe é que fez surgir o termo action figures (figuras de ação) para designar brinquedos desta espécie.
A marca registrada G.I. Joe vem sendo usada pela Hasbro para intitular diferentes linhas de brinquedo. A linha original, produzida em 1964 nos Estado Unidos, trazia bonecos de 12 polegadas (= 30,48cm) com expressões e formas bem realísticas. No Reino Unido esta linha foi licenciada pela compania Palitoy e é conhecida como Action Man.

Em 1982, a linha G. I. Joe foi relançada na escala de 3¾ polegadas (9,5cm) e acompanhada por veículos, playsets (kits) e uma complexa história envolvendo uma luta permanente entre a equipe G.I. Joe e o maligno Cobra Command (Comando Cobra) que deseja assumir o comando do Free World (Mundo Livre) através do terrorismo.
Assim como a linha americana evoluiu para a série Real American Hero (Herói americano real), a linha britânica Action Man também mudou, usando os mesmos moldes e sendo renomeada como Action Force.

Embora os componentes da equipe G.I. Joe não sejam super heróis, eles são experts (especialistas) em áreas como artes marciais, armamentos e explosivos.

A figura G.I. Joe surgiu  pela primeira vez nos Estados Unidos em uma tirinha de jornal, chamada "Private Breger", nos anos de 1940. Nos anos de 1980, G.I. Joe reapareceu em um comic book (gibi) promocional  produzida pela Marvel Comics. O sucesso desta edição levou a Marvel Comics produzir um segundo título: G.I. Joe: Special Missions, que deu origem a mais 28 edições. A última edição da série, a de número 155, foi lançada em dezembro de 1994, coincidindo com o fim da linha de brinquedos Real American Hero.

Em 1985, as aventuras da equipe G.I. Joe contra o Comando Cobra foi produzida em desenho animado (cartoon). A série animada ressaltava as lutas físicas e os armamentos high-tech como forma de compensar o baixo teor de violência e a falta de tiros, já que este era um programa produzido para crianças. A série teve um total de 95 episódios, de 1985 a 1986.

A série G. I. Joe foi cancelada após o lançamento do filme G.I. Joe: The Movie (1987). A série foi relançada em 1989 sem obter, entretanto, o mesmo sucesso.

Em 2009 Stephen Sommers dirigiu, em Hollywood, um filme de ação de grande orçamento baseado no G.I. Joe. O primeiro filme, que pretendia ser uma franquia, é G.I. Joe: A Origem de Cobra (G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra). O filme se passa no tempo presente ( ainda que no início seja dito "Em um futuro não tão distante" = "In the not too distant future") e mostra uma sinopse da história de cada personagem. No filme, Cobra começa a causar destruição usando armas de alta tecnologia e vendê-las para terroristas cruéis. Os membros do G.I. Joe unem-se para impedir Cobra de formar uma organização global de terroristas. O filme termina com dicas de que haverá uma sequência.

Bom pessoal, o assunto rendeu né?! Espero que tenham curtido!

Então, que tal ir a uma locadora e pegar o filme dos G.I.'S? Fica a dica como um programa de férias!

See you soon!
Teacher Jô

quinta-feira, 21 de julho de 2011

O que significa os termos militares Private e G.I.?

Hi, everybody!
Muitos de vocês, fãs dos filmes de ação de Hollywood, já perguntaram porque alguns soldados são chamados de "Privates" e outros são chamados de "GI'S". Bom, agora é o momento de desvendar este "mistério"!

Na hierarquia militar é chamado de "Private" o soldado de grau mais baixo, ou melhor, é o soldado que não possui grau algum. Em português, a palavra equivalente a "Private" é "Recruta". Mas em inglês também existe a palavra "Recruit" usada para o mesmo fim. A explicação para o uso de "Private" encontra-se na etmologia (estudo da história e origem das palavras) que nos ensina que a palavra "Private" deriva do termo medieval "Private Soldier" (literalmente "soldado particular"). O termo, que ainda nos dias de hoje é usado no Reino Unido, referia-se a soldados contratados, conscritos (trabalho involuntário requerido por uma autoridade estabelecida, mas ao que é mais frequentemente associado é ao serviço militar obrigatório.) ou cidadãos de um feudo a serviço de um nobre (Senhor Feudal) que formava um exército para lutar por seus interesses.
Já o uso da palavra "Private" data do século XVIII, até quando o exército de Napoleão Bonaparte estabeleceu, por primeira vez, o termo francês "Soldat" para designar os combatentes.

Por outro lado, um G.I. é um militar em campo de combate. Mas o que significa exatamente "G.I."?
Bem, a sigla G.I.estampada no uniforme dos militares refere-se diretamente ao termo " Government Issues", ou seja, "Assunto de Governo".
Hã?! Como assim? Explico. Qualquer militar dentro dos quartéis, não é um G.I. O militar só passa a ser chamado de G.I. quando vai para o campo de batalha, ainda que em treinamento. Nestas ocasiões, todos os seus pertences da vida civil lhe são retirados e tudo o que ele/ela utiliza é propriedade do Governo. Portanto, os uniformes, utensilhos, armamentos, o treinamento que recebe, a missão que lhe é confiada, enfim,  tudo o que um G.I. possui ou sabe é assunto do Governo. Assunto altamente confidencial... Top secret!
Atualmente, o nome G.I. é um termo genérico para designar os militares das Forças Armadas (Army, Navy, Air Force, Mariners) norte americanas, especialmente as forças de terra (ground forces). Vale acrescentar que em um campo de batalha, onde distintos grupamentos de um mesmo exército se reunem (todos vestidos com o mesmo uniforme, usando os mesmos armamentos e camuflados), dificilmente um soldado distingue o outro pelo nome. Então, usa-se o termo G.I. Joe para os homens e G.I. Jane para as mulheres. Lembra que em inglês (AmE) usa-se os nomes Joe e Jane para fazer menção a uma pessoa cujo nome desconhecemos? Seria algo como e Maria, ou Fulano e Sicrana.

Veja o post:

Law & Order: "John Doe" vs "Jane Doe"

That's it!
No próximo post, falo sobre a Equipe G.I. Joe.
See you!
Teacher Jô

segunda-feira, 18 de julho de 2011

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Trailer Official HD)

Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte - Parte 2

por Ana Al Izdihar

O mais famoso conto de bruxos dos últimos tempos está se despedindo, e com honras feitas em 3D. Acho que alguns de nós teremos saudades de ver os filmes no cinema, mas também reveremos todos sempre que possível na TV ou em DVD. E muitos de nós iremos mostrar aos filhos e aos netos, assim como nos foi mostrado A fantástica fábrica de chocolate (com Billy Wilder), E.T., A história sem fim ou Curtindo a vida adoidado.
J. K. Rowling conjurou por 13 anos todas as mandingas, todos os instrumentos e palavras mágicas, todas as ervas, símbolos (desde os objetos aos bichos), lugares de poder, representantes do mal e do bem já conhecidos por nós no Ocidente há séculos. Usou os quatro elementos representados nos objetos buscados por Harry, que reverberaram em seu cotidiano através das relações com os outros. E ela parece ter planejado tudo: desde o latim inventado de Hogwarts até os atores que iriam se encaixar melhor na versão cinematográfica. Mas será que tudo mesmo tinha o dedo dela?
Será que até o dia da estreia de Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte, Parte 2 nos EUA e Brasil foi planejada especialmente para que os iniciados confirmassem algo de antemão? A insistência de nos novos pôsteres do filme aparecer simplesmente “It all ends 7.15” teria sido de propósito? Sim, pois ao fazermos a somatória dos números que compõem a data de estreia, o resultado é 13 (7+1+5), o que corresponde ao Arcano 13 do tarô, que é… a Morte. A propósito, a estreia em Londres foi dia 7/7, que daria o Arcano 14 — Temperança –, que, somado com 2011, daria o Ermitão.
Contudo, é aí que vem aquela “magia” da obra de ficção, da obra de arte, aquilo que escapa das mãos do(s) autor(es): a riqueza da narrativa, que cativa tanto a mente dos admiradores, transcendendo a razão e a lógica chata. E olha, a Temperança e o Ermitão fazem ressonância com este capítulo final de Harry Potter, mas se eu contar aqui, além de fugir demais do assunto, vou lançar muitos spoilers
O jogo de morte empreendido neste capítulo tem tudo o que se pode esperar da jornada de um heroi: perseguição, revelações bombásticas, batalhas espetaculares, frases filosóficas e, claro, perdas. Porém, está menos sombrio que a Parte 1, mais dinâmico, não faltando sequer o humor inglês ácido, justamente com o tema da morte. Às vezes achava que os personagens repentinamente cantariam “Always look on the bright side of life”. Vocês não podem deixar passar essa oportunidade de presenciar o encerramento da narrativa heroica e popular de maior sucesso da nossa recente história, na tela grande com óculos 3D.
Lembro-me de ter reparado no primeiro filme de Harry que ele se apresenta aos amigos no trem dizendo, “My name is Potter, Harry Potter”, obviamente remetendo quase que cinicamente a outro dos mais famosos herois da tradição inglesa. Ali já se via o charme do personagem, o carisma do ator, bem como o tom de aventura forte que a história iria ter.
Render-se à saga de Harry Potter não é nada de mais. É simples, é divertido e natural. Tudo nele foi sucesso: os livros e os filmes. O despertar de sua vida de menino nos emocionou, nos arrebatou, nos fez torcer por ele. O desenvolvimento de sua vida de bruxo nos fascinou, nos deu medo, nos hipnotizou e nos fez reviver nossas fantasias mais recônditas. Os livros deram um impulso no hábito de leitura dos jovens. Os filmes trouxeram e formaram um outro tipo de espectador, criou um estilo, uma franquia.
Mencionei em meu texto sobre Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe dados históricos e simbólicos sobre toda a saga de Harry. E, escrevendo sobre Relíquias da Morte, 1, revi com vocês a trajetória cinematográfica, tentando prever o finalíssmo-final. E acho que consegui acertar algumas previsões sobre J. K. Rowling. Já viram a carona que ela pegou junto ao lançamento deste último filme? Rowling lançará em breve Pottermore: um site em que leitores descobrem partes inéditas e ajudam a reconstruir a história de Harry, ao que parece numa tentativa de enriquecer a leitura de narrativas por via digital (veja o anúncio especial). O portal será aberto ao grande público em outubro e, para os “escolhidos”, já no início de agosto. Mas tem de seguir as corujas…
Harry Potter passou por nossas vidas e nos deixou marcas, não há como escapar disso. Aceite ou não, você vai ter de ouvir isso durante anos daqui para frente. Outras coisas virão? Sim, claro. Mas mesmo que se recrie o mito, há algo de único em Harry Potter que jamais será substituído — como em seus antecedentes, de Rei Arthur a James Bond.

Nestas férias, vá ao cinema!
See you,
Teacher Jô


De forma bem resumida e direta, "gotta" é a junção de "have to" ou "has to" em sentenças como as que seguem abaixo:
  • I have to go home. (Tenho de ir para casa.)
  • They have to study. (Eles têm de estudar.)
  • She has to stay here. (Ela tem de ficar aqui.)
  • He has to help us. (Ele tem que ajudar a gente.)
  • We have to talk to them. (Nós temos de falar com eles.)
Onde você vir "have to" ou "has to" nas sentenças acima pode ser trocado por "gotta" em um estilo mais informal. Isso significa que podemos dizer:
  • I gotta go home.
  • They gotta study.
  • She gotta stay here.
  • He gotta help us.
  • We gotta talk to them.
Podemos ainda ouvir isso em perguntas como as que seguem abaixo:
  • Gotta pen? (Tem uma caneta?)
  • Gotta 10 bucks? (Tem 10 dólares?)
  • Gotta sharpener? (Tem um apontador?)
  • Gotta knife? (Tem uma faca?)
  • Gotta minute? (Tem um minuto?)
Geralmente fazemos perguntas assim quando queremos confirmar se a pessoa tem algo que possamos tomar emprestado ou usar por algum momento. Claro que esse é o tipo de coisa que você aprende e percebe vivenciando a língua e prestando atenção ao uso prático dela diariamente.

Outro momento no qual podemos usar o "gotta" é com as combinações "have a" ou "has a":
  • I have a beautiful house. | I gotta beautiful house. (Tenho uma casa bonita.)
  • She has a great car. | She gotta great car. (Ela tem um ótimo carro.)
  • He has a good job. | He gotta good job. (Ele tem um bom emprego.)
Esse terceiro uso não é visto com muitos bons olhos pelos falantes nativos de inglês. Eu, particularmente, não recomendo que você o use. Ou seja, o melhor, nesse caso, é dizer a forma completa e deixar o "gotta" de lado. Mas, no caso de "have to" ou "has to" e no caso de perguntas informais não há problemas, pois é a forma mais natural de falarmos em inglês.

Lembre-se, porém, que em situações formais como reuniões de negócios, palestras, apresentação de um trabalho, etc., e em cartas de solicitação de emprego, comunicados oficiais, emails comerciais e coisa do tipo o melhor é escrever bonitinho mesmo: "have to", "has to", "have a" e  "has a". Deixe o "gotta" para momentos mais descontraídos.

domingo, 17 de julho de 2011

Kinda vs. Kind of

Quem escuta muitas músicas ou seriados em inglês certamente já deve ter ouvido a palavra "kinda" (cáinda). Afinal, a expressão "kinda" é usada com muita frequência na língua inglesa. Mas, o que realmente isso quer dizer? Quando devemos usar essa palavra? O que temos a aprender sobre ela?

"kinda" é o jeito informal de dizer "kind of" em inglês. Ou seja, no inglês formal (palestras, correspondências comerciais, comunicados, etc.) o melhor é escrever e falar "kind of". Mas, no inglês informal (bate papo via internet, conversa com os amigos na balada, etc.), você poderá escrever e falar "kinda".

Já em relação ao significado, "kinda" pode ter traduções diferentes. Tudo dependerá do contexto. Assim, dependendo do momento "kinda" pode significar "tipo de", "espécie de", "mais ou menos" ou "meio". Acho que isso ficará mais fácil de entender lendo os exemplos abaixo:
  • I don't like this kinda music. (Eu não gosto desse tipo de música.)
  • That's a kinda fish. (Essa é uma espécie de peixe.)
  • It's a kinda magic. (É um tipo de mágica.)
  • I'm kinda tired today. (Eu estou meio cansado hoje.)
  • She's kinda late. (Ela está meio atrasada.)
  • He seems kinda weird to me. (Ele é meio estranho para mim.)
  • She kinda likes him. (Ela gosta dele mais ou menos. | Ela meio que gosta dele.)
  • I kinda understand that. (Eu entendo isso mais ou menos. | Eu meio que entendo isso.)
  • We kinda hate her. (A gente meio que odeia ela.)
Como você pode ver, o "kinda" ou o "kind of" só é compreendido de acordo com o momento em que é usado. Mas, para isso é preciso praticar inglês e se acostumar com o inglês cada vez mais e mais. Por se tratar de uma expressão bastante usada em inglês, na inFlux os alunos já aprendem logo cedo. Assim, acostumam-se logo com o inglês usado no dia a dia dos falantes nativos da língua inglesa.

Será que você tem mais alguns exemplos com "kinda" ou "kind of"? Alguma música que você gosta e na qual essa expressão é usada? Se sim, coloque-a na área de comentários para aumentarmos os exemplos dessa dica.

This is it!
See, ya!

sábado, 16 de julho de 2011

The Lazy Song - Bruno Mars [A Música da Preguiça - Official Video]

Today I don't fell like doing anything
I just wanna lay in my bed
Don't fell like pickin up my phone
So leave a message at the tone
'Cause today I swear I'm not doing anything...

Hoje eu não estou com vontade de fazer nada
Só quero ficar deitado na cama
Não quero atender o telefone
Então deixe o recado na secretária eletrônica
Pois juro que hoje eu não quero fazer nada...

We're all feeling so tired and lazy. We can sing, though. Let's sing!

The Lazy Song

Today I don't fell like doing anything
I just wanna lay in my bed
Don't fell like pickin up my phone
So leave a message at the tone
'Cause today I swear I'm not doing anything

I'm gonna kick my feet up, then stare at the fan
Turn the TV on, throw my hand in my pants
Nobody's gonna tell me I can't
I'll be lounging on a couch, just chillin in my snuggie
Click to MTV so they can teach me how to Douggie,
'Cause in my castle I'm the freakin man

Yes I said it
I said it
I said it 'cause I can!

Today I don't fell like doing anything
I just wanna lay in my bed
Don't fell like pickin up my phone
So leave a message at the tone
'Cause today I swear I'm not doing anything
(Nothing at all)

Huhul, huhuuuul
(Nothing at all)
Huhuuul, huhuuul

Tomorrow I wake up
Do some P90x
Meet a really nice girl
Have some really nice sex
And she's gonna sream out this is great
(Oh my God, this is great)

I might mess around
And get my college dregree,
I bet my old man will be so pround of me.
But sorry paps you'll just have to wait

Yes I said it
I said it
I said it 'cause I can!

Today I don't fell like doing anything
I just wanna lay in my bed
Don't fell like pickin up my phone
So leave a message at the tone
'Cause today I swear I'm not doing anything

No, I ain't gonna comb my hair.
'Cause I ain't going anywhere
No, no, no, no, no,
no, no, no, no, ooooh

I'll just strut in my birthday suit,
and let everything hang loose
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah,
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeeeaaah

Oooh, today I don't fell like doing anything
I just wanna lay in my bed
Don't fell like pickin up my phone
So leave a message at the tone
'Cause today I swear I'm not doing anything
(Nothing at all)

Huhul, huhuuuul
(Nothing at all)
Huhul, huhuuuul
(Nothing at all)

Have a nice winter vacation!!!
Teacher Jô

sexta-feira, 15 de julho de 2011

The trickiest word in American

Hello, everyone!
I read this great article about American English, by Vicki Hollet, an English teacher and coursebook writer. Vicki writes a fantastic blog called Learning to speak merican.
It will be a pleasure to share Vicki's article with you.
Hope you enjoy it!
See you,
Teacher Jô

I’d better confess right away that I’m not a native American English speaker. If you could hear my accent, you’d spot in a jiffy that my native variety is British English. But stop, come back, because I can tell you about THE most important word to get your head around if you’re communicating with Americans. I know this because I’ve lived in the US for more than a decade now, and it’s still the word that I have to think about – every time.
Quite: It’s such a common word. Americans use it, Brits use it, and it’s the same word, right? Well no, not quite. Have a look at these sentences. Both Americans and Brits could say them all. But two of them mean different things, depending on whether an America or a Brit says them. Which ones?

1       This is quite interesting.
2       Quite fascinating, in fact.
3       I’m usually quite good at this kind of exercise.
4       But you’re quite correct. This is tricky.

One common meaning of quite in both varieties is ‘completely’. See 2 and 4 above. These two sentences mean the same in American and British English.
Fascinating and correct are both ungradable adjectives, so things are either fascinating/correct or not. There’s no half way about it. But there are other adjectives that are gradable, so for example, there can be different degrees of good or interesting. And that’s where things get complicated and quite means different things. See 1 and 3 above.
If your American boss says your work is quite good, should you be pleased or a little concerned? In British English quite good only means pretty good or fairly good, but in American English it’s much more positive. Quite good means very good, so you can give yourself a pat on the back.
And one last piece of advice for any American guys who are planning a first date with an English girl. Don’t be like one of my American friends and tell her you think she is quite pretty. He was lucky to get a second date.

By Vicki Hollett
From: Macmillan Dictionary Blog

quinta-feira, 14 de julho de 2011

What's your favorite English word and why?

Here’s a short video of some of the answers:

Tell us what your favourite word is and why by posting a comment to this post.

See ya!
Teacher Jô

quarta-feira, 13 de julho de 2011

Collective Nouns II

Hi, students!
Yesterday I talked about collective nouns on this blog. This time the emphasis is on differences between how British and American English speakers use them. This guest posts comes from Erin Brenner, author of The Writing Resource, a blog offering quick lessons in writing. So, let's read the post!

A collective noun is a singular noun that refers to a group of individuals, animals, or objects, such as faculty, team, colony, staff, herd, and group. This is one of those points on which British and American English do not agree. In British English, the collective noun usually takes a plural verb:
The rugby team are practising night and day for the Rugby World Cup.
The staff are complaining loudly about the lack of overtime.
We Americans, however, usually pair a collective noun with a singular verb:
The football team is practicing night and day for the Super Bowl.
The staff is complaining loudly about the lack of overtime.
In these cases, we are thinking of these groups as singular units. The emphasis is on the whole, on everyone working in unison for one goal or expressing one thought. There are times, however, when we think of these groups as individuals:
Boston’s school committee disagree about what to cut from the school budget.
The faculty are preparing their courses for next year.
Here, individuals within the group are not acting as one. School committee members have conflicting ideas about how to reduce the budget. The faculty are working independently of each other to prepare coursework for the coming year.
Sometimes, though, a collective noun with a plural verb sounds odd to American ears:
The audience are fighting in the aisles.
In such a case, it is better to rewrite your sentence, e.g.:
Audience members are fighting each other in the aisles.
Grammatically speaking, there is no right or wrong answer here. A collective noun can go with either a singular verb or a plural verb. The choice is in what sounds right to your ear. Once you make that choice, however, be consistent throughout your text. Otherwise, your audience might indeed start fighting in the aisles.

That's it!
See ya,
Teacher Jô

By Erin Brenner
From: Macmillan Dictionary Blog

terça-feira, 12 de julho de 2011

Collective Nouns

Hi, Students!
Just as in Portuguese, English nouns also have a collective form. But, what are collective nouns? Well, these are nouns that represent a group of more than one thing. The collective noun in this sentence is highlighted in bold font:

My uncle owns a flock of sheep.

One of the most common uses of collective nouns is to describe groups of various types of animals. Some of the names used to describe groups of animals are very weird. Here are some of them:

Group name Animals used with
Herd Buffalo, cattle, deer, donkeys, elephants, horses, kangaroos, pigs
Destruction Feral cats
Pod Whales, dolphins, seals
Nest Vipers, snakes
Ambush Tigers
Muster Storks, peacocks
Host Sparrows
Murder Crows
Crash Rhinoceros
Litter Pups, pigs, cubs, dogs, kittens
Shoal Most types of fish
Flock Most types of birds, sheep
Pride Lions
Brood Hens, chickens
Colony Ants, beavers, penguins, frogs, rabbits
Swarm Bees, flies, rats
Convocation Eagles
Kine Cows
Sloth Bears
Culture Bacteria
Shrewdness Apes                                                                                    

segunda-feira, 11 de julho de 2011

Double Possessives II

Hello, students!
Sometimes, it seems like you double up in indicating who or what is owned by something else. Compare these two sentences:

The boy was scared by the memories of his grandfather’s.
The boy was scared by the memories of his grandfather.

The first sentence is talking about the memories that his grandfather has of something, which the grandfather is probably telling the boy about. The memories are owned by the grandfather.
In the second sentence, the memories are not owned by the grandfather. They are someone else’s memories of the grandfather. Perhaps the boy is being told some scary things about what other people remember about his grandfather.
The first sentence is an example of a double possessive construction. It has two ownership parts stacked on top of each other. The ‘of’ part indicates one ownership, and "grandfather’s" indicates another ownership - there’s double possession.
In the second sentence, the phrase ‘of his grandfather’ is an adjectival phrase that tells us more information about the noun ‘memories’.

Mixing up it’s and its

It’s and its have two different meanings.

Usually when you have an apostrophe followed by an ‘s’, it means that the word is a possessive word and it owns something. Not so with this word, however. When you see it’s, it is actually a shortening of the words ‘it is’:  

Its’, on the other hand, is the possessive form of the word ‘it’. ‘Its’ is a possessive pronoun. So use this form when you’re talking about what ‘it’ owns:

I am surprised at its size. 

Hope it's helped you!
See ya,
Teacher Jô

domingo, 10 de julho de 2011

Double Possessives

Hi, everyone!
Do we say "a friend of Joe's" or "a friend of Joe"?
In spite of the fact that "a friend of Joe's" seems to overwork the notion of possessiveness, that is usually what we say and write. The double possessive construction is sometimes called the "post-genitive" or "of followed by a possessive case or an absolute possessive pronoun" (from the Oxford English Dictionary, which likes to show off).
The double possessive has been around since the fifteenth century, and is widely accepted. It's extremely helpful, for instance, in distinguishing between "a picture of my father" (in which we see the old man) and "a picture of my father's" (which he owns). Native speakers will note how much more natural it is to say "He's a fan of hers" than "he's a fan of her."
Generally, what follows the "of" in a double possessive will be definite and human, not otherwise, so we would say "a friend of Joe's" but not "a friend of the museum's [museum, instead]." What precedes the "of" is usually indefinite (a friend, not the best friend), unless it's preceded by the demonstratives this or that, as in "this friend of my father's."

That's all for now!
See you,
Teacher Jô

sábado, 9 de julho de 2011

Are you hungry?

Hello, guys and gals!
Neste video Teacher Paulo ensina sobre refeições e expressões usadas quando nos alimentamos. Ah, ele também ensina como usar o Inglês na hora de ir a um restaurante!
Teacher Paulo oferece um vocabulário bastante extenso neste video de 17:12min, além de apresentar as variações entre o inglês americano (AmE) e o britânico (BrE). Vale muito a pena assistir e enriquecer ainda mais teu vocabulário!
Hope you enjoy it!
See ya!
Teacher Jô

sexta-feira, 8 de julho de 2011

Cinderella - I Still Believe

Do you believe in destiny?
I do. I really do!

Here you have a beautiful video and song from "Cinderella", by Disney. Lyrics are below. Sing the song!

I Still Believe (Hayden Panettiere)

Some how I know I will find a way
To a brighter day in the sun
Some where I know that he waits for me
Someday soon he'll see
I'm the one…
I won't give up on this feeling
And nothing could keep me away…

Cause I still believe in destiny
That you and I were meant to be
I still wish on the stars as they fall from above
Cause I still believe, believe in love

I know what's real cannot be denied
Although it may hide for awhile
With just one touch love can calm your fears
Turning all your tears into smiles
It's such a wonderous feeling
I know that my heart can't be wrong

Cause I still believe in destiny
That you and I were meant to be
I still wish on the stars as they fall from above
Cause I still believe, believe in love

Enough to make miracles
Change everything
Lift you from the darkness and make your heart sing
Love is forever
When you fall
It's the greatest power of all

Oh, I still believe in destiny
That you and I were meant to be
I still wish on the stars as they fall from above
Cause I still believe, believe in love

Yes I still believe, believe in love

I still believe in love

I still believe, believe in love

quinta-feira, 7 de julho de 2011


Hello, everyone!
Winter vacation is coming... Anyway, our process of learning keeps going and we can't stop practicing. 
Next semester we're going to read some fairy tales and fill our hearts with sweetness, as well as remember the times of our innocence. So, because of it I've posted here the first tale in our list: "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper"; that is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward.

Thousands of variants are known throughout the world. The title character is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstance that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune. The word "cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean one whose attributes are unrecognised, or one who unexpectedly achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and neglect. 
The still-popular story of "Cinderella" continues to influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements, allusions, and tropes to a wide variety of media. 
So, let's start reading! Hope you all enjoy it!
Teacher Jô 
Once upon a time there lived an unhappy young girl. Her mother was dead and her father had married a widow with two daughters. Her stepmother didn't like her one little bit. All her kind thoughts and loving touches were for her own daughters. Nothing was too good for them - dresses, shoes, delicious food, soft beds, and every home comfort.
But, for the poor unhappy girl, there was nothing at all. No dresses, only her stepsisters’ hand-me-downs. No lovely dishes, nothing but scraps. No rest and no comfort. She had to work hard all day. Only when evening came was she allowed to sit for a while by the fire, near the cinders. That’s why everybody called her Cinderella. 
Cinderella used to spend long hours all alone talking to the cat. The cat said, . Miaow. , which really meant, . Cheer up! You have something neither of your stepsisters has and that is beauty.. It was quite true. Cinderella, even dressed in old rags, was a lovely girl. While her stepsisters, no matter how splendid and elegant their clothes, were still clumsy, lumpy and ugly and always would be. 
One day, beautiful new dresses arrived at the house. A ball was to be held at the palace and the stepsisters were getting ready to go. Cinderella didn't even dare ask if she could go too. She knew very well what the answer would be: . You? You're staying at home to wash the dishes, scrub the floors and turn down the beds for your stepsisters. They will come home tired and very sleepy.. Cinderella sighed, . Oh dear, I'm so unhappy!. and the cat murmured . Miaow...
Suddenly something amazing happened. As Cinderella was sitting all alone, there was a burst of light and a fairy appeared. . Don't be alarmed, Cinderella,. said the fairy. . I know you would love to go to the ball. And so you shall!. . How can I, dressed in rags?. Cinderella replied. . The servants will turn me away!.
The fairy smiled. With a flick of her magic wand Cinderella found herself wearing the most beautiful dress she had ever seen. . Now for your coach,. said the fairy; "A real lady would never go to a ball on foot! Quick! Get me a pumpkin!. . Oh of course,. said Cinderella, rushing away. Then the fairy turned to the cat. . You, bring me seven mice, and, remember they must be alive!.
Cinderella soon returned with the pumpkin and the cat with seven mice he had caught in the cellar. With a flick of the magic wand the pumpkin turned into a sparkling coach and the mice became six white horses, while the seventh mouse turned into a coachman in a smart uniform and carrying a whip. Cinderella could hardly believe her eyes.
Cinderella had a wonderful time at the ball until she heard the first stroke of midnight! She remembered what the fairy had said, and without a word of goodbye she slipped from the Prince. s arms and ran down the steps. As she ran she lost one of her slippers, but not for a moment did she dream of stopping to pick it up! If the last stroke of midnight were to sound... oh... what a disaster that would be! Out she fled and vanished into the night. 
The Prince, who was now madly in love with her, picked up the slipper and said to his ministers, “Go and search everywhere for the girl whose foot this slipper fits. I will never be content until I find her!”
So the ministers tried the slipper on the foot of every girl in the land until only Cinderella was left. That awful untidy girl simply cannot have been at the ball,. snapped the stepmother. . Tell the Prince he ought to marry one of my two daughters! Can't you see how ugly Cinderella is?. But, to everyone. s amazement, the shoe fitted perfectly. 
Suddenly the fairy appeared and waved her magic wand. In a flash, Cinderella appeared in a splendid dress, shining with youth and beauty. Her stepmother and stepsisters gaped at her in amazement, and the ministers said, "Come with us Cinderella! The Prince is waiting for you." So Cinderella married the Prince and lived happily ever. As for the cat, he just said "Miaow!"  

See ya!
Teacher Jô

quarta-feira, 6 de julho de 2011

Negative Pronouns

Negative pronouns are no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing. The differences in their use with the animate and inanimate objects. The examples of their use and functions in a sentence.

Negative pronouns in English are: no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing.

1. The negative pronoun “no” is used only with nouns and serves as an attribute.

No food or drinks allowed in the office.

2. The negative pronoun ”none” could indicate both animate and inanimate objects.

None of us succeeded there.
Do you like classic or green tea? – None.

3. Negative pronouns “nobody” and “no one” indicate only animate objects.

Nobody wanted to help him.
It was obvious that no one shared his point of view.

4. The negative pronoun “nothing” indicate inanimate objects.

You have nothing to worry about.

5. Pronoun “neither”.

Neither of them wanted to talk to her

See ya!
Teacher Jô

terça-feira, 5 de julho de 2011

Using Indefinite Pronouns II

Rules for the use of indefinite pronouns. The indefinite pronoun one as a replacement word.

indefinite pronouns in english

1. The “some” pronoun is used in affirmative sentences, and “any” – in negative and interrogative sentences.

If you need some help – just ask me.
Do you have any questions?
I don’t have any money for you.

The pronouns “some” and “any” are used with nouns that describe a certain material and represent an indefinite quantity.

Do you want some water?

2. The English pronouns somebody, someone, something are used in the affirmative sentences.

I want to say something.
You need someone like her.
Somebody left the door open.

3. The English pronouns anyone, anybody and anything are used in negative and interrogative sentences.

I don’t need anyone.
Do you want anything to drink?
Can anybody answer the phone?

4. The one pronoun.

Only one can solve this problem, and this one is you.
Give me please two apples, the big ones.

See you!!!
Teacher Jô

segunda-feira, 4 de julho de 2011

Party In The U.S.A. - Miley Cyrus... Just watch the video!!!

4th of July - It's a party in the USA!!!
Happy birthday America!!!

4th of July - Independence Day

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia